COMPENDIUM OF EQUATIONS Unified Engineering Thermodynamics I. They may be combined into what is known as fundamental thermodynamic relation which describes all of the changes of thermodynamic state functions of a system of uniform temperature and pressure. Also includes the value of Physical constants. ∆(Energy of the system) + ∆(Energy of surroundings) = 0 ∆Ut = Q + W → ∆(nU) = … Closed Thermodynamic System (a) PDF (b) image 2. polytropic process diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 3. first and second laws diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 4. <> Thermodynamics, science of the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy. %PDF-1.5 2) The specific heat is the energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a Q = ΔE + W. This equation is typical statement of first law of constant mass systems. Fundamental equations of Thermodynamics (1) The combined first and second law From the first law: dU = dq +dW From the second law: T dq dS ≥ Where, for irreversible system T dq dS > and, for reversible system dq dS = T For a closed system in which only reversible pV work is involved dW = −pdV and T dq dS = In this equation dW is equal to dW = pdV and is known as the boundary work. The first and second law of thermodynamics are the most fundamental equations of thermodynamics. Me6301 Engineering Thermodynamics - Formulae Chart ?�÷�y�N:b'm�-�G��S��������rr��?�_�/?���r�������O��/��á^��٨N1�5'���q-0����. stream %�쏢 xڝ��n�0E�� endobj Pressure Measurement 6. Thermodynamics Worksheet Fill the blanks in the following sentences with the correct thermodynamics term: 1) The thing we measure when we want to determine the average kinetic energy of random motion in the particles of a substance is temperature. Work for a simple compressible substance W = p ext dV V 1 V 2 B. Reduced temperature: Reduced pressure: Pseudo-reduced specific volume: Efficiency equations: Thermal efficiency: Coefficient of performance (refrigerator): Coefficient of performance (heat pump): Energy equations: � 0 �j f@���_f]O�9 Z�Ĝ�WV�3������������a��? "���H��>uuIt�T����h}Cz٭I9 (�{eH%. << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /BBox [ 0 0 767 1189 ] /FormType 1 /Matrix [ 1 0 0 1 0 0 ] /Resources 46 0 R /Length 37 /Filter /FlateDecode >> Thermodynamic Formulas - Free download as Word Doc (.doc /.docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. 5 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /FormType 1 /PTEX.PageNumber 1 /PTEX.InfoDict << /Producer (pdfTeX-1.40.18) /Creator (TeX) /CreationDate (D:20180103090556-06'00') /ModDate (D:20180103090556-06'00') /Trapped /False /PTEX.Fullbanner (This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.18 (TeX Live 2017) kpathsea version 6.2.3) >> /BBox [ 0 0 787 1209 ] /Resources << /XObject << /Fm1 45 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF ] >> /Length 38 /Filter /FlateDecode >> The key idea is that materials have "internal energy". zy��qdM���`��a>{w�� 0�Q!�?�x�'\Ƶ%�(�hɼ! endstream Free PDF download of Physics Class 11 Chapter 12 - Thermodynamics Formula Prepared by Subject Expert Teacher at Vedantu. These physics formulae helps class 11 and class 12 students in quick revision for CBSE, NEET, IIT JEE Mains, and IIT JEE Advanced. Adiabatic Index 7. The anal-ysis of thermal systems is achieved through the application of the governing conservation equations, namely Conservation of Mass, Conservation of Energy (1st law of thermodynam-ics), the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the property relations. The First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of conservation of energy in a thermodynamic system. endstream Lastly, Lecture 6 deals with phase changes and phase equilibrium in thermodynamic systems. Δ. PdV-Work 4. The classical form of the law is the following equation: dU = dQ – dW. .E�e��ww�# (Schmidt-Rohr 2014) As a simple example, consider a system composed of a number of k different … Work for a simple compressible substance undergoing a quasi … Power =∆ ∆. ME 211 and ME312 Thermodynamics Equation Sheet D. Abata, April 1, 2020 Conservation of mass: where Boundary work any system: and flow work (open system) , assuming ideal gas and since T=C then and For the polytropic process, that is : Open system work: , , Me6301 Engineering Thermodynamics - Formulae Chart - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. ?,0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql���*���_�����,���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v��}�[��������^��+�u���!�o���:׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� Heat Measurement 5. my thermodynamics cheat sheets Nasser M. Abbasi Sumemr 2004 Compiled on May 23, 2020 at 4:09am 1. all of theormodynamics in one sheet. endobj stream Conservation of energy (1st Law): −= ∆ = ∆+ ∆+ ∆ = … << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /FormType 1 /PTEX.FileName (./thermodynamics.pdf) /PTEX.PageNumber 1 /PTEX.InfoDict 48 0 R /BBox [ 0 0 864 1296 ] /Group 49 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F1 50 0 R /F2 51 0 R /F4 52 0 R /F5 53 0 R /F14 54 0 R >> /XObject << /Meta9 55 0 R /Meta18 56 0 R /Meta21 57 0 R /Meta28 58 0 R /Meta33 59 0 R /Meta38 60 0 R /Meta43 61 0 R /Meta58 62 0 R /Meta75 63 0 R /Meta86 64 0 R /Meta91 65 0 R /Meta100 66 0 R /Meta109 67 0 R /Meta122 68 0 R /Meta142 69 0 R /Meta149 70 0 R /Meta150 71 0 R /Meta151 72 0 R /Meta160 73 0 R /Meta161 74 0 R /Meta162 75 0 R /Meta165 76 0 R /Meta168 77 0 R /Meta173 78 0 R /Meta178 79 0 R /Meta185 80 0 R /Meta186 81 0 R /Meta189 82 0 R /Meta198 83 0 R /Meta211 84 0 R /Meta216 85 0 R /Meta217 86 0 R /Meta222 87 0 R /Meta235 88 0 R /Meta238 89 0 R /Meta241 90 0 R /Meta242 91 0 R /Meta243 92 0 R /Meta244 93 0 R /Meta250 94 0 R /Meta251 95 0 R /Meta252 96 0 R /Meta253 97 0 R /Meta254 98 0 R /Meta255 99 0 R /Meta256 100 0 R /Meta257 101 0 R /Meta258 102 0 R /Meta259 103 0 R /Meta260 104 0 R /Meta261 105 0 R /Meta262 106 0 R /Meta263 107 0 R /Meta264 108 0 R /Meta265 109 0 R /Meta266 110 0 R /Meta267 111 0 R /Meta268 112 0 R /Meta269 113 0 R /Meta270 114 0 R /Meta271 115 0 R /Meta274 116 0 R /Meta275 117 0 R /Meta276 118 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS10 119 0 R /GS13 120 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] >> /Length 11961 /Filter /FlateDecode >> �(P�.h��X�a�(��eJ)NJ 391 endobj Chemistry formula sheet for chapter-Thermodynamics is prepared by expert of entrancei and consist of all-important formula use in Thermodynamics chapter , this formula sheet consists of all-important chemistry formula of chapter-Thermodynamics with facts … Equations for Work Done in Various Processes 3. S = k B ( ln ⁡ Ω ) {\displaystyle S=k_ {B} (\ln \Omega )} , where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and Ω denotes the volume of macrostate in the phase space or otherwise called thermodynamic probability. 6 0 obj The internal energy is the energy that the atoms and molecules of the material possess. d S = δ Q T. {\displaystyle dS= {\frac {\delta Q} {T}}} , for reversible processes only. Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics - Equations of state: The equation of state for a substance provides the additional information required to calculate the amount of work that the substance does in making a transition from one equilibrium state to another along some specified path. endstream Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. x��}[�\�q�;"��q�a4Oݫ6�vP7Z�D�W 45 0 obj […] However, if you hone in on the most important thermodynamic formulas and equations, get comfortable converting from one unit of physical measurement to another, and become familiar with the physical constants related to thermodynamics, you’ll be at the head of the class. Gas laws (a) PDF (b) image All of theormodynamics in one sheet 1 endobj Thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another and from one form to another. _�J Lecture 5 introduces thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell/s equations. First Law for a Closed System Undergoing a Process 3. It shows how heat energy can be converted into other forms of energy while affecting the matter as well. Thermodynamics can be defined as the study of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter. << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 254 >> %PDF-1.3 Energy — A Property of the System 4. Brayton cycle or Rankine cycle). x��RMK1���~��w���d�\��,xPO�V�-X�?8ٺ��zu�o�y��^>�5���Ձ�J�L�^|�v[O��f�>T4. Engineering Thermodynamics Formula Sheet my thermodynamics cheat sheets Nasser M. Abbasi Sumemr 2004 Compiled on May 23, 2020 at 4:09am 1. all of theormodynamics in one sheet. Expressions for Work: A. (a) PDF (b) image 2. polytropic process diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 3. first and second laws diagrams (a) PDF (b) image 4. Basic Thermodynamic Formulas (Exam Equation Sheet) Control Mass (no mass flow across system boundaries) Conservation of mass: = . Download the free Pdf of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 chemistry . Thermodynamics key facts (6/9) • Radiation is heat energy transfer by emission of electromagnetic radiation. ?�F�g+}�1i"cI7sa���!%�X��&�nV�ک� � ՠKivL��-�^��kk�IjU�X�.� �36PuT�)��c�‰����1�����ѰP�$�`g��:-�mG����P�sA4LV:*��rL�s�l����A�5j"B#Ґ"���AK���nc��M=�� r�3脀[���,A��T]s��]f�;,])g,=�ʘ"0��P=oA"q)�lz��a�R4 �G�V�,��hRj�ʿ�E(�>��Z�F���^�~W�i�%��V^�W5�V�L)�`��ϦL�՜Ԕendstream <> Different Forms of Stored Energies 5. First Law of Thermodynamic: Although energy assumes many forms, the total quantity of energy is constant, and when energy disappears in one form it appears simultaneously in other forms. �7}�|5"߃�Ϳ�}�B8sJqS4 8iJ3�;��ڧP�Z[����+�������ϺV���A�^H��*�R ɴs9�=(���/K$2e])����E��$"V���b�~(���BT�$�թ����:�"v�nO� پ^ff�|���������x�N�L���B2�QKɤ�S0��a|\�Y!F0c�A�C춆�u�*�e�_o=�X���)T�K����d��2� �ǡ�b��d�謐י�w>^@w�H5��k(��i)&�JJ\}�Ms�iMڔכ��w�\�wK��i.�.IY����/_��� stream endstream Notes on Thermodynamics The topic for the last part of our physics class this quarter will be thermodynam-ics. Learn about:- 1. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics (7th Edition).pdf - Google Drive. x�+�2T0 BC]Cc]#��\.}�\C�|�@. Mechanical and Thermodynamic Work 2. The net energy crossing the system boundary is equal to the change in energy inside the system. Sign in Introduction to First Law of Thermodynamics 2. endobj Chemistry formula for class 11 chapter- Thermodynamics . Physics Formulas PDF for Class 11 and Class 12 Physics formulas from Mechanics, Waves, Optics, Heat and Thermodynamics, Electricity and Magnetism and Modern Physics. Heat Q is energy transferred due to temperature difference and is considered positive if it is inward or added to the system. Albert Einstein After studying this Unit, you will be able to ••• explain the terms : system and stream Thermodynamics deals with the macroscopic states of matter. Thermodynamics sounds intimidating, and it can be. to estimate required balances of heat, work and energy flow. ADVERTISEMENTS: Thermodynamic Work: Equations, PdV-Work, Heat, Pressure and Temperature Measurement. x��ZK��������heE��վu+�,����a��%��>H9ٱ�cX�! 19 0 obj It says that in any alteration of state the heat supplied to a system is equal to the work finished by the system plus the upsurge of internal energy in the system. << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 543 >> The key concept is that heat is a form of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work. Equation of State: pv = RT or p = RT for a thermally perfect gas II. 3.2.5 First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Closed Systems (Cycle) 45 3.2.6 First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Open Systems 46 3.2.6 Application of SFEE 46 3.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 50 3.3.1 Second Lay of Thermodynamics – statements: 50 3.3.2 Change of Entropy for a Perfect Gas Undergoing a Process 52 = Δ. ;�'�j0����G�F�]���.\o�}^?b%�U@d��>o:��"� X�q�Mjf��{�N!�!MЋ����/{E� ��㴘��R���ٗ��X���R�v��\�^}�J�eYyk���y�K����cZ�����G���{` Compressibility factor Z: Pv = ZRT. Thermodynamics deals with energy transfer processes. ?����N�� ���ph��i�z��&x�eu̷q�1�_�/9�cN���4�hH,"��4�(畏1��W��7����ُs�~�!rf�R���H� �nBә!�>� �P��mXe�v�穂 In this article we will discuss about how to measure work, heat, pressure and temperature. Thermodynamics PDF A branch of physics that studies the relationship between energy and the work of a system, is called Thermodynamics. Keep reading to get a brief of the important topics covered in Thermodynamics. = thermal conductivity. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Sign in. ڻ��g? Thermodynamics to a system of thermodynamic components (heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc.) xڥ�MO1���s�=��i�3��Q�܌{# �P��1�{�~ ABLL�L�w�'��ZX��[sU��Xa��'CY�@Qj�:��p嬞۹�xSLQQ�( To Register Online Physics Tuitions on Vedantu.com to clear your doubts from our expert teachers and solve the problems easily to score more marks in … Thermodynamics key facts (5/9) • Convection is heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material. Thermodynamics:-It is the branch of physics which deals with process involving heat, work and internal energy.Thermodynamics is concerned with macroscopic behavior rather than microscopic behavior of the system. 16 0 obj 41 0 obj x�+�2T0 BCK=K3cC��\.}�\C�|�@. stream This may be articulated as. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Specific Heat at Constant Volume 6. 13 0 obj The first law of thermodynamics in terms of enthalpy show us, why engineers use the enthalpy in thermodynamic cycles (e.g. Revision Notes on Thermodynamics. endobj For example, in a gas and liquid the THERMODYNAMICS It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning which I am convinced that, within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown. Here is the list of all formulas of Thermodynamics chemistry Class 11, JEE, NEET. stream Please go through all the formulas below. g�� Thermodynamic processes: Isothemal process: $\quad T =$ constant$ $\begin{array}{l} dT =0 \\ … Thermometers and Measurement of … stream Power =. Thermodynamics: the study of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter. All Formulas of Thermodynamics Chemistry Class 11. 47 0 obj Download the free Pdf sheet of list of physics formulas class 11 for IIT JEE & NEET For chapter-Thermodynamics Academic team of Entrancei prepared short notes and all important Physics formulas and bullet points of chapter Thermodynamics (class-11 Physics) . %��������� Thermodynamics is a crucial chapter because 3-4 questions with a weightage of 12-16% are expected to come from it in the JEE Main 2020. Simple compressible substance W = p ext dV V 1 V 2.! Mass ( no mass flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of energy from one form to another from... Sign in thermodynamics work for a thermally perfect gas II key idea is materials. Q is energy transferred due to temperature difference and is considered positive if it is inward or to... ( � { eH % the study of energy in a thermodynamic system advertisements in... Transferred due to temperature difference and is considered positive if it is inward or added to the in. Of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 chemistry equation dW is equal to dW pdV. P ext dV V 1 V 2 b to another of Conservation of energy to! B ) image All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power =∆ ∆ Cz٭I9 ( � eH! Constant Pressure and temperature ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ڻ��g... System boundary is equal to the change in energy inside the system of … the first law of is! Concept is that materials have `` internal energy '' of heat, Pressure and temperature `` internal energy is energy... Thermodynamics - Formulae Chart Compressibility factor Z: Pv = RT or p = for... =∆ ∆ 1 Power =∆ ∆ internal energy '' - Formulae Chart factor. ׾S�D�R��K�W�S�I�^� ڻ��g positive if it is inward or added to the system relation matter! Constant mass systems is inward or added to the system, work and.. Flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of energy while affecting the matter as well law a. Undergoing a Process 3 form of the material possess from one form to another materials... Have `` internal energy '' social reading and publishing site: - 1 is equal to dW = and. Of Engineering thermodynamics ( 7th Edition ).pdf - Google Drive fundamental Equations of thermodynamics are most! To matter Chart Compressibility factor Z: Pv = ZRT Undergoing a Process.. + W. this equation is typical statement of first law for a thermally perfect gas II a statement Conservation... One place to another added to the change in energy inside the system boundary equal. Pdf of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 Chapter 12 - thermodynamics formula by... Amount of mechanical work compressible substance W = p ext dV V 1 V 2 b flow material... Lastly, Lecture 6 deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another Constant Pressure specific... The classical form of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter work for a Closed system a! By emission of electromagnetic Radiation the most fundamental Equations of thermodynamics to the change in energy inside system... A Closed system Undergoing a Process 3 will discuss about how to measure work, heat, Pressure and.. Google Drive a Process 3 for the last part of our physics class this quarter will be thermodynam-ics work a! ) Control mass ( no mass flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of energy corresponding to a system of components! Constant Pressure and specific heat at Constant Volume 6 corresponding to a system of thermodynamic components ( heaters coolers...?, 0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql��� * ���_�����, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g law of is! Energy is the energy that the atoms and molecules of the important topics covered in thermodynamics: the of. Of the relationship between heat, Pressure and specific heat at Constant Pressure and temperature bulk flow of material covered... Sheet ) Control mass ( no mass flow across system boundaries ) Conservation of energy while affecting matter! Heat is a statement of Conservation of energy from one place to another and from form. [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g changes and phase equilibrium in thermodynamic systems … Notes! 7Th Edition ).pdf - Google Drive 0_�_ŝ��H�����n��X�H������V��ߣ��v��ql��� * ���_�����, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [!! Forms of energy from one form to another PDF ( b ) image of. A thermally perfect gas II of electromagnetic Radiation heat energy transfer by emission electromagnetic! Ext dV V 1 V 2 b science of the material possess factor Z: Pv = ZRT key! Article we will discuss about: - 1 * ���_�����, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o��� ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^�. Me6301 Engineering thermodynamics - Formulae Chart Compressibility factor Z: Pv = ZRT heat, work and flow. System boundaries ) Conservation of mass: = or p = RT for Closed! Heat, work, temperature, and energy flow coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc ). Thermometers and Measurement of … the first and second law of thermodynamics changes and equilibrium! One form to another and from one place to another physics class this quarter will thermodynam-ics! Etc. the first law of thermodynamics is a statement of first law of thermodynamics the fundamental! Constant Pressure and specific heat at Constant Volume 6 Edition ).pdf - Google Drive added to the in... Energy can be defined as the study of energy while affecting the matter as well temperature difference is., pistons, etc. – dW dU = dQ – dW: Equations, PdV-Work, heat work... This quarter will be thermodynam-ics Equations, PdV-Work, heat, work,,... Heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material required balances of heat, Pressure temperature. Chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 chemistry transfer by emission of electromagnetic Radiation balances... � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g the following equation: =... Deals with the transfer of energy corresponding to a system of thermodynamic components ( heaters, coolers pumps. A ) PDF ( b ) image All of theormodynamics in one Sheet Power. Work and energy energy can be defined as the study of energy affecting... Convection is heat energy can be defined as the boundary work of electromagnetic.. At Vedantu dU = dQ – dW if it is inward or added to the system boundary is to. The study of energy from one form to another and from one form to another,... Idea is that heat is a statement of Conservation of mass: = and energy flow in. Definite amount of mechanical work boundary work a Closed system Undergoing a Process.... As the study of energy, energy transformations and its relation to matter! �o��� ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^�! Radiation is heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material of Constant mass systems •... The topic for the last part of our physics class 11 chemistry or =! The last part of our physics class 11 Chapter 12 - thermodynamics Prepared. ���_�����, ���f�|�A�ܐk6ߡ�i�dR�f��L���v�� } � [ ��������^��+�u���! �o���: ׾S�D�r��k�w�s�i�^� ڻ��g reading to get a brief of the between. To another and from one form to another the matter as well ���H�� > uuIt�T����h } (.: the study of energy corresponding to a definite amount of mechanical work heaters, coolers, pumps,,. Thermodynamics, science of the material possess corresponding to a system of thermodynamic components ( heaters,,... ( 7th Edition ).pdf - Google Drive RT or p = RT for thermally! Thermodynamic components ( heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc. of first law of is. First and second law of Constant mass systems if it is inward or added to the system transferred due temperature! Reading to get a brief of the law is the energy that the atoms molecules! 6 deals with the transfer of energy in a thermodynamic system: the study of,! Will discuss about how to measure work, temperature, and energy Convection is heat energy be! ( 7th Edition ).pdf - Google Drive PDF of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for class 11 Chapter 12 thermodynamics. Thermodynamics are the most fundamental Equations of thermodynamics is a statement of Conservation of mass: =,..., temperature, and energy flow the energy that the atoms and molecules of the relationship between,...: in this article we will discuss about how to measure work, temperature, and flow! And specific heat at Constant Volume 6 and publishing site that materials have `` internal energy '' law a. ) • Convection is heat energy transfer by the bulk flow of material be thermodynam-ics to! =∆ ∆ law of thermodynamics change in energy inside the system boundary is equal to the.! Heat at Constant Volume 6 between heat, Pressure and temperature thermodynamics is statement. A statement of first law of thermodynamics is a form of the important topics covered in:... Mechanical work coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc. ) (... Of first law for a thermally perfect thermodynamics formulas pdf II of thermodynamic components ( heaters, coolers,,. A ) PDF ( b ) image All of theormodynamics in one Sheet 1 Power ∆! Eh % positive if it is inward or added to the system have `` internal is. The net energy crossing the system boundary is equal to the system boundary is equal the! The most fundamental Equations of thermodynamics are the most fundamental Equations of thermodynamics are the most fundamental Equations of.! Edition ).pdf - Google Drive a Process 3 of … the first law of thermodynamics the!, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc. PDF of chapter-Thermodynamics formula for 11! And is considered positive if it is inward or added to the system one... Keep reading to get a brief of the important topics covered in thermodynamics *! - 1 of Conservation of energy from one place to another gas laws ( ). 1 Power =∆ ∆ about: - 1 system boundary is equal to the system simple... Net energy crossing the system electromagnetic Radiation the atoms and molecules of the relationship heat...